Gooding will become the first director at Aviva to focus on the inclusion and diversity strategy full time.
She will take on the role in January. Aviva confirmed that a replacement would follow, but wouldn't give an exact timeframe.
Aviva said the move "signals its continued ambition and commitment to lead the financial services sector in creating a more open culture in the work place".
Gooding is a strong advocate of diversity in the industry, and is chair of trustees at Stonewall, which pushes for equality of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans people.
Sarah Morris, chief people officer at Aviva, said: "Building a strong culture of inclusive diversity is central to Aviva’s future success. Every one of our customers is different, just as every one of our people brings something different to work.
"Inclusion isn’t just about gender or ethnicity, or sexual orientation or age. It’s about people and making sure we recognise the diverse talents, experiences and perspectives of everyone at Aviva. It makes good business sense."
Having joined Aviva in 2008, Gooding has played a key role in developing the brand. She helped launch the "Good thinking" campaign with Adam & Eve/DDB.
Gooding said: "The business case has been evidenced again and again across the world: people perform better at work when they can be themselves.
"Simply put, this is another example of good thinking by Aviva, focusing attention on an area which will ensure we attract and keep the best talent and are better able to serve our customers.
"Varied and balanced voices leads to improvements in creativity, productivity and profitability in every sector."